Be healthier with fewer traffic jams.
Organise public space so people can choose the vehicule they want to use.

Bikes vs Cars 2015 Documentary: https://youtu.be/et8iEIPhooM

Imdb: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4397346/mediaindex?ref_=tt_pv_mi_sm

What a driverless world could look like | Wanis Kabbaj: https://youtu.be/OlLFK8oSNEM:

Urgent investment needed in walking and cycling infrastructure to save millions of lives and combat climate change – United Nations Environment Program:
http://www.unep.org/newscentre/urgent-investment-needed-walking-and-cycling-infrastructure-save-millions-lives-and-combat-climate

Bicycle Race – Queen : https://youtu.be/xt0V0_1MS0Q

La Bicyclette – Yves Montand : https://youtu.be/eoHjQs6C4UY

Le projet deux à deux cycles:https://deuxadeuxcycles.wordpress.com/le-projet

, Fellini: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8%C2%BD

 

I) What this Green Car Table mean?

The most serious car makers have different approach to the reduction of toxic emissions

  • Improve engine efficiency and fuel combustion with better manufacturing quality (eg. Mazda Skyactive-G engine). 
  • Assist a petrol or diesel engine with a self-recharging battery. These are hybrid cars. (eg. Toyota Auris) 
  • Alternate from petrol to electricity using a battery to charge plug-in from the grid. These are plug-in hybrid cars (eg. Toyota Prius or Volvo V60). 
  • Full electric charge from the grid (eg. Nissan Leaf).

Nox is the exhaust gaz responsible for toxic fog in big cities. It is mainly due to incomplete fuel combustion. Watch this TED-Ed explanation The smog phenomenahttps://youtu.be/CdbBwIgq4rs

CO2 emissions are not only to be measured from the tailpipe but also from the power plant if the car uses plug-in electricity. There are major differences per countries depending of the source of energy. Countries like France rely on nuclear power that doesn’t emit C02 but it transfers the risk to an industrial catastrophe. You can read here the electricity emissions per country: http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/electric-car-emissions

Some car makers may use aluminium to build the car body. It makes the car lighter so it consumes less fuel on the road. But producing aluminium requires 20 times more oil than the production of steel. Making an aluminium car is worth 2or 3 years of fuel consumption on the road. So when comparing cars the figures need to be reassessed.

A choice has been made making this table which is to use figures of real world driving made by independent groups of scientist. Please consult section IV if you want read them first hand.

II) Open science meets car industry

Don’t forget that the Volkswagen scandal has a been the result of Open Science which means university researchers have measured and shared their work. It was previously made by car makers only. Open scientists share their techniques and findings online. This new phenomenon has surprised Volkswagen but also others like Fiat or Renault. They cannot alter the figures as much as they wish anymore.

If you want to know more, please consult these articles:

This is the testing rig that caught Volkswagen riding dirty – The Verge: https://www.theverge.com/2015/9/23/9387613/volkswagen-emissions-test-photo-scandal

Researchers Who Exposed VW Gain Little Reward From Success – NY Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/25/business/vw-wvu-diesel-volkswagen-west-virginia.html

Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study – Science Direct: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014006190

III) Don’t let governments shame you into thinking individuals are the only ones to blame.

Although looking for the cleanest car is an important goal, transportation only accounts for 14% percent of the emissions of toxic gazes. To put this data into perspective , compare this figure to agriculture industry and house heating systems which represent 49% of the emissions altogether. The datas are available on this document: 

Emissions per economic sector – EPA: https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

Let’s draw a parallel with antibiotics. People should indeed use antibiotics reasonably but the 50% of the worldwide production is administered to cattle. (http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/93/4/15-030415.pdf) and 70% in the US (http://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/fact-sheets/2016/12/antibiotics-and-animal-agriculture-a-primer). 

Please, feel free to consult my former post called Pill Umbrella for more information: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/171519511590/the-pill-umbrella-drug-research-went-from-the/amp

IV) If you want to check the figures of the table, here they are: 

Dutch CO2 factor for road vehicleshttps://www.emissieregistratie.nl/erpubliek/documenten/Lucht%20(Air)/Verkeer%20en%20Vervoer%20(Transport)/Wegverkeer/TNO%20(2016)%20Dutch%20CO2%20emission%20factors%20for%20road%20vehicles.pdf

Road Tested Nox and Co2 emissionshttps://www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/ICCT_RoadTested_201709.pdf

TRUE – The Real Urban Emissions Initiative – The Real Urban Emissions
http://www.trueinitiative.org/

Test achat Belgique  sur le Dieselgate à télécharger: https://www.test-achats.be/auto-velo/autos/dossier/dieselgate-faites-vous-partie-des-gens-trompes/telecharger?ressourceUri=F3D9F3DFD8B55DCFD01E8D383C55963C0BDACB40

– Emissions Analytics is the unrivalled expert in the use of Portable Emissions
Measurements Systems (PEMS) and the interpretation and analysis of real-world data: http://emissionsanalytics.com

– Emission analytics calculator: http://www.nextgreencar.com/tools/emissions-calculator/

– Emissions related to steel and aluminium car bodies: https://www.oecd.org/env/cc/2483490.pdf

http://www.electroheatinduction.com/how-to-calculate-electricity-cost-for-melting-metal-in-induction-melting-furnace

V) Law dealing with big cheaters

Diesel emissions scandal: VW fined €1bn by German prosecutors – BBC: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-44474781#

Electric cars grab almost half of sales in oil-producing Norway – Reuters: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-electric-norway/electric-cars-grab-almost-half-of-sales-in-oil-producing-norway-idUSKCN1TW2WO

La Tesla Model 3 obtient la note maximale au test européen de sécurité des passagers – Phonandroid : https://www.phonandroid.com/tesla-model-3-obtient-note-maximale-test-europeen-securite-passagers.html

TESLA Model 3 vs BMW M3 Track Battle | Top Gear: https://youtu.be/DSRWKxytW40

https://youtu.be/rXodSqMpuUQ

Arnold Goes undercover as a Used Cars Salesman to prank customershttps://youtu.be/rXodSqMpuUQ