联合国的战争与和平

(必要时使用谷歌翻译)

1961年,达格·哈马舍尔德秘书长希望在加丹加(刚果)建立联合国干涉权的飞机坠毁。纽约总秘书处前面的广场仍以他的名字命名。

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/12/former-raf-pilot-shot-down-un-chief-dag-hammarskjold-1961-plane

http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/dag/time1960.htm

建立干涉权的项目落空了。这意味着当一个国家内发生冲突时,联合国不能干预。当一个国家向另一个国家宣战时,它只会干预。
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paix#Paix_international_international

因此,联合国不会在刚果民主共和国,南斯拉夫,卢旺达,车臣或叙利亚干预或为时太晚。
https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/mav/49/VIDAL/55555

在海地或东帝汶等案件中,联合国在内部冲突时进行干预。这是因为没有商业利益给美国,法国,俄罗斯,中国和英国的总统带来压力。这很重要,因为他们是安全委员会的成员。
https://www.cairn.info/revue-pouvoirs-2004-2-page-111.htm

伯纳德库什内尔重新提出了联合国干涉权的概念。他没有足够的支持,这个想法再次落空。
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Kouchner#Devoir_d’ing%C3%A9rence

在没有联合国干预的情况下,有几次冲突爆发,相反,情况更糟。这使得该机构不那么可信。在Sebrenica或Aleppo发生了可怕的大屠杀。
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/srebrenica-20-years-after-the-genocide-the-dutch-peacekeepers-still-haunted-by-memories-of-the-10378913.html

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2018/03/30/la-tragedie-syrienne-sera-t-elle-le-tombeau-des-nations-unies_5278740_3232.html

那么为什么我仍然有信心,为什么我对联合国抱有希望呢?

自联合国成立以来,因暴力侵略而死亡的风险已经崩溃。向另一国宣战的国家数量也在下降。内部冲突中受伤,致残和死亡的人数远低于国家之间的冲突。

事实上,由于联合国,和平取得了进展:https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/battle-related-deaths-in-state-based-conflicts-since-1946-by-world-region

在国家主权面前,干涉义务的想法正在逐步取得进展。 https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Souverainet%C3%A9#Les_limites_%C3%A0_la_souverainet%C3%A9_issues_of_intergovernmental_organizations

但联合国为和平做了更多的事情,帮助人们过上更好的生活。

关于童工,奴役和妇女权利的结果是惊人的。没有人能否认世卫组织的有效性,世卫组织直接参与根除某些疾病。谁能批评联合国儿童基金会

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/various-measures-of-child-labour-incidence

https://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/legal-slavery/

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/women-married-by-age-18?tab=chart

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/life-expectancy-globally-since-1770

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/decade-in-which-smallpox-ceased-to-be-endemic-by-country

https://mobile.twitter.com/melindagates/status/981236431770157057

指标的引入有助于各国正视其实际行动,而不是其宣传行动。

联合国是有效的。联合国仍处于起步阶段。

有些人感到沮丧,因为他们没有干预内部冲突;让我们动员起来要求干涉!

让我们也要求该机构通过一个受欢迎的倡议公投指标来衡量民主的进展(例如,已经有多少,结果得到尊重):https://sdg-tracker.org

现任联合国秘书长是一位勇敢的人,与葡萄牙的萨拉查独裁统治作斗争。他一定会听取他的要求。在民众的支持下,他会更容易说服强大的人:http://inthesetimes.com/article/19820/united-nations-secretary-general-antonio-guterres-refugees-multiculturalism

优先考虑和平还意味着在建立和平之前,通过将机构从充分利用其商业利益的游说场所中解放出来来更好地利用公共资金:https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/24/peacekeeping-cant-be-done-on-the-cheap-united-nations-secretary-general-antonio-guterres

http://www.climatechangenews.com/2018/09/10/secretary-general-throw-entire-un-fight-suicidal-emissions

联合国拥有支持他们的人是非常重要的。我们不是唯一的。面对日益专制的“自由民主国家”趋势,世界上越来越多的团体正在推动帮助实现这一受欢迎的公投项目。联合国开发计划署(开发计划署)对这些问题感到关切。

V-DEM是瑞典哥德堡大学的一个系。它正式提供了联合国可持续发展目标16(与和平,正义和强大机构有关)的指标和统计数据。

2017年V-DEM年度报告:https://www.v-dem.net/media/filer_public/91/14/9114ff4a-357e-4296-911a-6bb57bcc6827/v-dem_annualreport2017.pdf

联合国已于2015年与V-DEM内阁合作,考虑衡量公众对民众倡议的公投情况。 V-DEM在一份非常技术性的报告中提供了2015年可持续发展目标的统计数据:https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43561144.pdf

该指数衡量:

(1)可以轻松地启动和批准每种类型的民众投票,以及

(2)此次投票的重要性(如果获得批准)。

启动的容易程度通过以下方式衡量:

(a)存在直接民主的过程,

(b)所需签名的数目;和

©收集签名的时间限制。

批准的容易程度取决于与域名相关的法定人数:

(a)参与,

(b)批准,

©绝大多数,和

(d)该区的大部分。

关于投票的重要性,它审查其决定性质(决定是否具有约束力)和直接民主机制在公民倡议下的威胁能力,以直接民众投票的使用频率和过去批准了。最后,该研究测试了新测量的有效性,讨论了其优势和局限性。

可持续发展目标16(和平与包容性社会)指标的下一次修订将于2019年7月开始,并有机会纳入直接民主指标。如果该项目没有通过,下一次要求就联合国公民倡议进行公民投票的机会将在2030年。

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf/2018


根据可持续发展目标16“和平,正义和强有力的机构”(https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/fr/)向联合国申请,为人民倡议公投:在此处签名:http://chng.it/TXCknMhm  并转发给你的朋友。


世界变得更好还是更糟?看一下数字| StevenPinker | TEDTalks | https://youtu.be/yCm9Ng0bbEQ

到2030年我们如何才能让世界变得更美好MichaelGreen | TEDTalks:https://t.co/BnGtJVraZx

联合国大会第377号决议:https://youtu.be/AkTTpreLvNg


https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181923581635/伸出援助之手-呼吁追求战斗-亲爱的来自所有国家的直接民主推动者

https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/182030470210/联合国的战争与和平-必要时使用谷歌翻译

https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181487936905/根据可持续发展的目标向联合国提出申诉16和平正义和强有力的机构httpssustaina

颜色革命: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181578507950/颜色革命-必要时使用谷歌翻译

赤と黄色: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181707937615/赤と黄色

我的荷尔蒙想要钦佩: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181922705735/我的荷尔蒙想要钦佩-我想闪耀-我是骑士-并穿上闪闪发光的盔甲-马耳他的顺序-我打架-反对异教徒


Война и мир в ООН: https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fY02kx

Guerre et Paix à l’ONU:  https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fWTBUA

War and Peace at the UN: https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fXZWlp

L’ONU interdit à la France l’usage des grenades et lanceurs de balles car cette violence d’Etat dissuade les gens de manifester pacifiquement.

Rights of ‘gilets jaunes’ protesters in France, ‘disproportionately curtailed’, say UN independent experts | UN News
https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1032741

War and Peace at the UN

In 1961, Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld’s plane, which wanted to establish a UN right of interference in Katanga (Congo), crashed. The square in front of the General Secretariat in New York still bears his name.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/12/former-raf-pilot-shot-down-un-chief-dag-hammarskjold-1961-plane

http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/dag/time1960.htm

The project to establish a right of interference falls through. This means that the UN cannot intervene when a conflict occurs within a country. It can only intervene when one country declares war on another.
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paix#Paix_international_international

The UN is therefore not intervening, or too late, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Chechnya or Syria.
https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/mav/49/VIDAL/55555

In cases such as Haiti or East Timor, the UN intervenes when it is an internal conflict. This is because there is no commercial interest that puts pressure on the presidents of the USA, France, Russia, China and the United Kingdom. This is important because they are the ones who are part of the security council.
https://www.cairn.info/revue-pouvoirs-2004-2-page-111.htm

Bernard Kouchner relaunches the idea of the UN’s right of interference. He has not enough support and the idea falls through again.
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Kouchner#Devoir_d’ing%C3%A9rence

Several conflicts erupt without the UN intervening or, on the contrary, making the situation worse. This makes the institution less credible. Horrible massacres such as in Sebrenica or Aleppo are taking place.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/srebrenica-20-years-after-the-genocide-the-dutch-peacekeepers-still-haunted-by-memories-of-the-10378913.html

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2018/03/30/la-tragedie-syrienne-sera-t-elle-le-tombeau-des-nations-unies_5278740_3232.html

So why do I still have confidence and why do I have my hopes for the UN?

Since the creation of the UN, the risk of dying from violent aggression has collapsed. The number of countries that have declared war to another has also fallen. The number of injured, maimed and dead is much lower in internal conflicts than in conflicts between countries.

It is a fact that peace has progressed thanks to the UN: https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/battle-related-deaths-in-state-based-conflicts-since-1946-by-world-region

The very idea of the duty of interference is gradually gaining ground in the face of state sovereignty. https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Souverainet%C3%A9#Les_limites_%C3%A0_la_souverainet%C3%A9_issues_of_intergovernmental_organizations

But the UN does much more for peace, helping people to live better.

The results on child labour, slavery and women’s rights are staggering. No one can deny the effectiveness of WHO, which has been directly involved in the eradication of certain diseases. Who could criticize UNICEF?

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/various-measures-of-child-labour-incidence

https://www.gapminder.org/data/documentation/legal-slavery/

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/women-married-by-age-18?tab=chart

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/life-expectancy-globally-since-1770

https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/decade-in-which-smallpox-ceased-to-be-endemic-by-country

https://mobile.twitter.com/melindagates/status/981236431770157057

The introduction of indicators has served as a lever for States to face up to their real actions, and not those of their propaganda.

The UN is effective. The UN is still in its infancy.

Some are frustrated because they do not intervene in internal conflicts; let us mobilize to ask for interference!

Let us also ask the institution to measure the progress of democracy through a popular initiative referendum indicator (e.g. how many there have been, results respected): https://sdg-tracker.org

The current UN Secretary General is a man of courage who fought against the Salazar dictatorship in Portugal. He will surely listen to the requests made to him. With popular support, it will be easier for him to convince the powerful ones: http://inthesetimes.com/article/19820/united-nations-secretary-general-antonio-guterres-refugees-multiculturalism

Giving priority to peace also means making better use of public money by freeing the institutions from lobbies which press for their commercial interests, before peace is established: https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/24/peacekeeping-cant-be-done-on-the-cheap-united-nations-secretary-general-antonio-guterres

http://www.climatechangenews.com/2018/09/10/secretary-general-throw-entire-un-fight-suicidal-emissions

It is very important for the UN to have people who support them. We are not the only ones. More and more groups around the world are pushing to help bring about this popular referendum project in the face of the increasingly autocratic trend of “liberal democracies”. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is concerned about these issues.

V-DEM is a department of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. It officially provides indicators and statistics for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 16 (related to peace, justice and strong institutions).

The V-DEM Annual Report 2017: https://www.v-dem.net/media/filer_public/91/14/9114ff4a-357e-4296-911a-6bb57bcc6827/v-dem_annualreport2017.pdf

The UN has already collaborated in 2015 with the V-DEM cabinet to consider the measurement of the referendum on popular initiative. V-DEM provided statistics for the SDG in 2015 in a very technical report: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43561144.pdf

This index measures:

(1) the ease with which each type of popular vote can be initiated and approved, and

(2) the importance of this vote (if approved).

The ease of initiation is measured by:

(a) the existence of a process of direct democracy,

(b) the number of signatures required; and

© the time limits for collecting signatures.

The ease of approval is measured by the quorums relating to domain names in :

(a) participation,

(b) approval,

© the supermajority, and

(d) a majority of the district.

With regard to the importance of the vote, it examines its decisive nature (whether the decision is binding or not) and the threatening capacity of direct democracy mechanisms at the initiative of citizens, measured by the frequency with which direct popular votes have been used and approved in the past. Finally, the study tests the validity of the new measure, discussing its strengths and limitations.

The next revision of the indicators of SDG 16 (Peaceful and inclusive societies) will be in July 2019 with the opportunity to include the direct democracy indicator. If the project does not pass, the next chance to ask for a referendum on a citizens’ initiative at the UN will be in 2030.

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/hlpf/2018


Petition to the UN in accordance with the sustainable development objective n°16 “peace, justice and strong institutions” (https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/fr/ …), for the Popular Initiative Referendum: sign here: http://chng.it/TXCknMhm and forward it to your friends.


Is the world getting better or worse? A look at the numbers | StevenPinker |TEDTalks | https://youtu.be/yCm9Ng0bbEQ  

How We Can Make the World a Better Place by 2030 | MichaelGreen | TEDTalks: https://t.co/BnGtJVraZx

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377: https://youtu.be/AkTTpreLvNg


联合国的战争与和平: https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fXt8n2

Война и мир в ООН: https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fY02kx

Guerre et Paix à l’ONU:  https://tmblr.co/ZprwNe2fWTBUA

L’ONU interdit à la France l’usage des grenades et lanceurs de balles car cette violence d’Etat dissuade les gens de manifester pacifiquement.

Rights of ‘gilets jaunes’ protesters in France, ‘disproportionately curtailed’, say UN independent experts | UN News

https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1032741


Si vous avez la chance d’être protégé par votre statut ou votre pays, vous avez le devoir de vous servir: http://chng.it/DHtc8HMV

Main tendue: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181769674190/main-tendue-appel-à-la-poursuite-de-la-lutte

Les rouges et les jaunes: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181545667825/les-rouges-et-les-jaunes-foulards-rouges-contre

Le levier économique: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181291168120/le-levier-économique-charles-stewart-parnell

Successful protesters: https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181195356610/successful-protesters-lets-have-a-quick-look-back

Je veux briller:https://aurianneor.tumblr.com/post/181712917330/mes-hormones-veulent-de-ladmiration-je-veux