“You have to find out what you can’t know before you know you can’t, don’t you? (…) The point is people must think, people must go on thinking, they must try to extend the boundaries of knowledge and they don’t sometimes even know where to start. You don’t know where the boundaries are, do you?” Stephen Hawking’s mother, Isobel Hawking Walker, in A brief history of time – Errol Morris (documentary film 1991).

Stephen Hawking’s big ideas … made simple – video animation-The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/news/video/2013/sep/19/stephen-hawking-history-time-simple-video

A brief history of time – Errol Morris (documentary film 1991): https://youtu.be/GiIIx6oh0pk

A Brief History of Time – Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Brief_History_of_Time

Into a Black Hole – Stephen Hawking: http://www.hawking.org.uk/into-a-black-hole.html


Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen – Wikipedia on JaneHawking: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Hawking …


The Theory of Everything (2014 film)- Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Theory_of_Everything_(2014_film)


Albert Einstein was considered at school as a bogus because he always had his head in the clouds. His name is now used as synonymous with genius. Is there a link between his scientific creativity and his state of mind?

Many Studies prove that yes, there is one.

For instance, Ut Na Sio and Thomas C. Ormerod state that: “When solving a creative problem, individuals benefit from performing a wide search of their knowledge to identify as many relevant connections as possible with the presented stimuli. Each time individuals reapproach the problem, they improve their per- formance by extending the search to previously unexplored areas of their knowledge network.” I invite you to read Does Incubation Enhance Problem Solving? A Meta-Analytic Review Ut Na Sio and Thomas C. Ormerod – Lancaster University: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~unsio/Sio_Ormerod_meta_analysis_incubation_PB.pdf

and the Wikipedia article on  Incubation (psychology): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incubation_%28psychology%29#The_Cases_For_and_Against_Dreams_Being_Useful_In_Problem-Solving

Jacques Higelin, Tombé du ciel: https://youtu.be/AJ5Dp-_QFQ8


Supertramp – Better Days: https://youtu.be/xE_dA479MCs

Queen – Innuendo: https://youtu.be/FRM0G1wfXoM


Artificial Intelligence

What a surprise to find a comic strip on Artificial Intelligence written by somebody called Montaigne!: Marion Montaigne présente l’Intelligence artificielle: https://youtu.be/DtdoNksCtmE

Indeed, Montaigne discusses in the Essays whether the savages found mainly in Brazil are human beings or not and whether they should be considered humans, the way the barbarians in Ancient Greece have been finally recognised as such. As it is growing more and more difficult to recognise an artificial intelligence from a human being; I think reconsidering this classic is relevant as it challenges again human identity.

The Montaigne Chap XXX: Of Cannibals: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3600/3600-h/3600-h.htm#link2HCH0030

Montaigne et la condition humaine – France Inter : https://www.franceinter.fr/emissions/un-ete-avec-montaigne/un-ete-avec-montaigne-06-juillet-2012

This was also discussed in the Dispute in Valladolid movie: http://www.lacontroversedevalladolid.fr/resume-detaille-de-la-controverse-de-valladolid
or by Descartes with his concepts of “cogito, ergo sum”, or “machina animata”.

Les robots méritent-ils d’avoir des droits ? Que se passerait-il s’ils devenaient conscients ?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHyUYg8X31c

The National Geopgraphic’s point of view: http://press.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/02/national-geographic-magazine-april-2017/

From the conquistadors until now the concept of humanity has evolved. On the other hand, what is common to humanity, at each step, from the cannibals till now; is some human beings’ will to build weapons to kill others.  Each time a new science has risen, some people have tried to find out how to use it to kill (physics, biology, chemistry and now AI).

“AI technology has reached a point where the deployment of [autonomous weapons] is – practically if not legally – feasible within years, not decades, and the stakes are high: autonomous weapons have been described as the third revolution in warfare, after gunpowder and nuclear arms.” – The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/27/musk-wozniak-hawking-ban-ai-autonomous-weapons

The Palais des Nations is a place where diplomats and United Nations experts meet to talk about war and peace. The room on the bottom part of the picture is one of the rooms where they are debating. They are currently discussing thoroughly about these new lethal weapons nicknamed Terminator and the future we want.

RedCross – Machines can’t follow the rules of war. Only humans can: https://twitter.com/ICRC/status/998187585724932096

UN Experts : Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

Wikipedia – Lethal Autonomous Weapon: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lethal_autonomous_weapon

Some scientists, businessmen, leaders and inventors have decided to write an Open Letter on AI in order to warn people about the limits and risks of the new technologies:

Future of life Institute: https://futureoflife.org/ai-open-letter
Wikipedia – Open Letter on AI:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Letter_on_Artificial_Intelligence

Writers have also thought about robots and artificial intelligence. Isaac Asimov is the master of the genre.

The International Labour Organization, a UN organization, is actually debating about the future of work we want. How do we want machines to change the way we work? For example, some imagine a world where machines would work for human beings in cooperatives enabling citizens to have a basic income.

ILO on future of work: http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/future-of-work/lang–en/index.htm

AI is constantly evolving, AI is booming now.

Ted Talks, How we teach computers to understand pictures | Fei Fei Li: https://youtu.be/40riCqvRoMs

MIT AI index : http://aiindex.org

How are we going to manage this boom?


SanFrancisco says it will use AI to reduce bias when charging people with crimes:

#demainlefilm: https://www.demain-lefilm.com/en/film
The award-winning globally acclaimed film, Tomorrow, by Cyril Dion and Mélanie Laurent.

Trailer: https://youtu.be/NUN0QxRB7e0

Wikipedia – Demain (film, 2015): https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demain_(film,_2015)#.C3.89conomie

Demain présenté à la COP 21:

Wir Franc: https://www.wir.ch/fr/qui-est-wir/qui-est-wir-et-quest-ce-que-cest/